Henley contracted tuberculosis of the bone at age 12, causing the am… Though he wrote several books of poetry, Henley is remembered most often for his 1875 poem "Invictus". He had different surgical procedures to get better. A debauch of smuggled whisky, The poem is most known for its themes of will-power and strength in the face of adversity, much of which is drawn from the horrible fate assigned to many amputees of the day— gangrene and death. From the age of 12, Henley suffered from tuberculosis of the bone. [5], From the age of 12, Henley suffered from tuberculosis of the bone that resulted in the amputation of his left leg below the knee in 1868–69. Specifically the poem "Suicide" depicts not only the deepest depths of the human emotions, but also the horrid conditions of the working class Victorian poor in the U.K. As Henley observed firsthand, the stress of poverty and the vice of addiction pushed a man to the brink of human endurance. Explore William Ernest Henley's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. The same poem and its sentiments have since been parodied by those unhappy with the jingoism they feel it expresses or the propagandistic use to which it was put during WWI to inspire patriotism and sacrifice in the British public and young men heading off to war. He left London and sought treatment in Edinburgh from Joseph Lister, whose theories of antiseptic surgery were still not universally accepted. cit. It was also from this time that William suffered from tuberculosis of the bone that resulted in the amputation of his left leg below the knee in 1868–69. The poem was set to music and release with a video in July 2020 by the folk band Stick in the Wheel. With four stanzas and sixteen lines, each containing eight syllables, the poem has a rather uncomplicated structure. In the late 20th-early 21st Centuries, Henley's most well-known poem "Invictus" has been cited a number of times in post-event statements by Libertarian and Ethno-Nationalist revolutionaries who have engaged in violent politically motivated public acts, as an explanation/justification for their actions, including Timothy McVeigh, an American citizen who attacked the Government of the United States with a bombing in 1995,[29] and Brenton Tarrant, an Australian who committed a massacre at two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand on 15 March 2019. During his lifetime Henley had become fairly well known as a poet. 1849. William Ernest Henley(1849 - 1902) William Ernest Henley (August 23, 1849 - July 11, 1903) was a British poet, critic and editor. [15], Margaret was a sickly child, and became immortalized by J. M. Barrie in his children's classic, Peter Pan. In the poem Invictus by William Ernest Henley the writer has given us a glimpse of the theme in the title itself. In 1873, his other leg was also affected by tuberculosis, but thanks to the innovative treatment of Dr Joseph Lister, who used his new antiseptic surgical method at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, it was not amputated. Tuberculosis took one of his feet as a child, and almost claimed another leg as a young adult. When they came, and found, and saved him. [23] The journal's outlook was conservative and often sympathetic to the growing imperialism of its time. A commission had recently attempted to revive the school by securing as headmaster the brilliant and academically distinguished Thomas Edward Brown (1830–1897). After cremation at the local crematorium his ashes were interred in his daughter's grave in the churchyard at Cockayne Hatley in Bedfordshire. As early as at the age of 12 Henley was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the bone, which led to the amputation of his left leg below the knee a few years later. Henley was born in Gloucester and was the oldest of a family of six children, five sons and a daughter. He was on the verge of losing his right leg until he became a patient of the immortal surgeon Joseph Lister. [16][17], After Robert Louis Stevenson received a letter from Henley labelled "Private and Confidential" and dated 9 March 1888, in which the latter accused Stevenson's new wife Fanny of plagiarizing his cousin Katherine de Mattos' writing in the story "The Nixie," the two men ended their friendship, though a correspondence of sorts did resume later after their mutual friends intervened. The loss of his daughter was a deeply traumatizing event in Henley's life but did not truly dampen his outlook on life as a whole. [18] Margaret did not survive long enough to read the book; she died in 1894 at the age of five and was buried at the country estate of her father's friend, Harry Cockayne Cust, in Cockayne Hatley, Bedfordshire. The struggle, in this situation, is a reference to Henley’s bout of tuberculosis of the bone, which led to his leg being amputated. [45], Connell, op. [2] Though Brown's tenure was relatively brief (c. 1857–1863), he was a "revelation" to Henley because the poet was "a man of genius—the first I'd ever seen". Self edited _____ “Invictus”, by William Ernest Henley, is a very powerful, well written, and detailed poem. Invictus means unconquerable or undetected in Latin. He was an English poet, writer, critic, and editor in the late Victorian period. William Ernest Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, the eldest of six children. While recovering from surgery in an Edinburgh infirmary, Henley began a friendship with author Robert Louis Stevenson. Between 1861 and 1867, Henley was a pupil at the Crypt Grammar School. In 1867, Henley passed the Oxford Local Schools Examination and set off to London to establish himself as a journalist. [6][14] In the 1891 Scotland Census, William and Anna are recorded as living with their two-year-old daughter, Margaret Emma Henley (b. Having lost one leg at 16 to arthritic tuberculosis, Henley was determined to try anything to save his other leg. While it has been observed that Henley's poetry "almost fell into undeserved oblivion,"[2] the appearance of "Invictus" as a continuing popular reference and the renewed availability of his work, through online databases and archives have meant that Henley's significant influence on culture and literary perspectives in the late-Victorian period is not forgotten. Joe Orton, English playwright of the 1960s, based the title and theme of his breakthrough play The Ruffian on the Stair, which was broadcast on BBC radio in 1964, on the opening lines of Henley's poem Madame Life's a Piece in Bloom: Madam Life's a piece in bloomDeath goes dogging everywhere:She's the tenant of the room,He's the ruffian on the stair. William Ernest Henley did a great job of giving details and thoughts, so the reader could imagine what he was going through. [4], Much later, in 1893, Henley also received an LLD degree from the University of St Andrews; however two years after that he failed to secure the position of Professor of English literature at the University of Edinburgh. Henley is known for his poem “Invictus,” 1875, written to exhibit his strength, passion and fighting spirit after tuberculosis caused the amputation of his foot. 'When poems of resistance get twisted for terrorism' 'The Atlantic', 16 March 2019. William Ernest Henley (1849-1903) William Henley was a British poet, editor and critic. It was also from this time that William suffered from tuberculosis of the bone that resulted in the amputation of … From 1882 to 1886, he edited The Magazine of Art, through which he promoted works of Auguste Rodin and James McNeil Whistler. Knowing that this poem was written by Henley while he was in the hospital being treated for tuberculosis of the bone. Between 1861 and 1867, Henley was a pupil at the Crypt Grammar School. [11]:135 This also marked the beginning of a fifteen-year friendship with Stevenson. "[10], Frequent illness often kept Henley from school, although the misfortunes of his father's business may also have contributed. And, although his knife was edgeless, [3]:35 His work over the next eight years was interrupted by long stays in hospitals, because his right foot had also become diseased. Unfortunately, his career was frequently interrupted by long stays in hospital due to a diseased right foot which he refused to have amputated. After successfully passing his exams, William Ernest Henley moved to London, where he sought to work as a journalist. Difficult path of life was reflected in his works, that is why they excite and inspire the reader. The school was a poor relation of the Cathedral School, and Henley indicated its The poem is about showing undivided courage in the face of death and keeping the dignity against all the hardships in life. [3] After carrying on a lifelong friendship with his former headmaster, Henley penned an admiring obituary for Brown in the New Review (December 1897): "He was singularly kind to me at a moment when I needed kindness even more than I needed encouragement". [30][31], George Butterworth set four of Henley's poems to music in his 1912 song cycle Love Blows As the Wind Blows. This accident caused his latent tuberculosis to flare up, and he died of it on 11 July 1903, at the age of 53, at his home in Woking, Surrey. After suffering tuberculosis as a boy, he found himself, in 1874, aged twenty-five, an inmate of the hospital at Edinburgh. He wrote several books of poetry but he is most famous for his 1875 poem ‘Invictus’. Bouncing back to live, William Ernest Henley began working as a journalist and publisher. [6][24] At the time of his death Henley's personal wealth was valued at £840. Born in Stirling, she was the youngest daughter of Edward Boyle, a mechanical engineer from Edinburgh, and his wife, Mary Ann née Mackie. 'McVeigh's Final Statement', 'The Guardian', 11 June 2001. William Ernest Henley is best remembered for his short poem ‘Invictus’. The speaker does not allow the possibility of … Later, Alfred Nutt published these and others in his A Book of Verse. "Some Memories and Impressions – William Ernest Henley". In 1889, Henley became the editor of the "Scots Observer" and two years later, the magazine moved to London, becoming the "National Observer," which Henley continued to edit until 1893. "[13], Henley married Hannah (Anna) Johnson Boyle (1855–1925) on 22 January 1878. [4], In 1902, Henley fell from a railway carriage. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which is caused by a bacterial infection which is generally spread through the air. Henley was diagnosed with tuberculosis when he was only 12 years-old. William Ernest Henley died of tuberculosis in 1903 at the age of 53 at his home in Woking, and his ashes were interred in his daughter's grave in the churchyard at Cockayne Hatley in Bedfordshire. Henley's best remembered work is the poem "Invictus" (1875), which he wrote as a tribute to his resistance to the tuberculosis that he had conquered. They had a daughter, Margaret Henley, who had frail health and speech difficulty. His influence in the artistic circle became even higher during his career as editor of journals and magazines. William Ernest Henley’s Invictus is a poem that conveys the idea of dealing with struggles head-on. "[4] In addition to his inviting its articles and editing all content, Henley anonymously contributed tens of poems to the journal, some of which were described by contemporaries as "brilliant" (later published in a compilation by Gleeson White). William Ernest Henley (23 August 1849 – 11 July 1903) was an English poet, writer, critic and editor in late Victorian England. He received education at the Crypt School in Gloucester from 1861 to 1867. [16][17] Unable to speak clearly, young Margaret had called her friend Barrie her "fwendy-wendy", resulting in the use of the name "Wendy" for a feminine character in the book. Forming the subject matter of the "hospital poems" were often Henley's observations of the plights of the patients in the hospital beds around him. [1], Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, to mother, Mary Morgan, a descendant of poet and critic Joseph Warton, and father, William, a bookseller and stationer. He was the first of six children by Mary Morgan and William Henley. William Ernest Henley was born on 23 August 1849 in Gloucester. Among other services to literature, it published Rudyard Kipling's Barrack-Room Ballads (1890–92). Made the world so black a riddle Low, Sidney. He left his position in 1893. [40] The poem is referenced in the title, "England, My England", a short story by D. H. Lawrence, and also in England, Their England, a satiric novel by A. G. Macdonell about 1920s English society. Henley's 1887 Villon's Straight Tip to All Cross Coves (a free translation of Francoise Villon's Tout aux tavernes et aux filles[44]) was recited by Ricky Jay as part of his solo show, Ricky Jay and His 52 Assistants (1994). In Chapter Two of her first volume of autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), Maya Angelou writes in passing that she "enjoyed and respected" Henley's works among others such as Poe's and Kipling's, but had no "loyal passion" for them. He received education at the Crypt School in Gloucester from 1861 to 1867. The sum total of Henley's professional and artistic efforts is said to have made him an influential voice in late Victorian England, perhaps with a role as central in his time as that of Samuel Johnson in the eighteenth century. [2] In a letter to Henley after the publication of Treasure Island (1883), Stevenson wrote, "I will now make a confession: It was the sight of your maimed strength and masterfulness that begot Long John Silver ... the idea of the maimed man, ruling and dreaded by the sound, was entirely taken from you. Between 1861 and 1867, Henley was a pupil at the Crypt Grammar School. [3]:31 Nevertheless, Henley was disappointed in the school itself, considered an inferior sister to the Cathedral School, and wrote about its shortcomings in a 1900 article in the Pall Mall magazine. William Ernest Henley, British poet, critic, and editor who in his journals introduced the early work of many of the great English writers of the 1890s. Ultimately, he needed a below knee amputation of the left lower limb to treat the disease invading his bones (see Operation). This degree of illness and surgery in the 1800’s very often lead to fatal outcomes. In that fictionalized account, the poem becomes a central inspirational gift from actor Morgan Freeman's Mandela to Matt Damon's Springbok rugby team captain Francois Pienaar, on the eve of the underdog Springboks' victory in the post-apartheid 1995 Rugby World Cup held in South Africa.[43]. Invictus by William Ernest Henley Updated: Mar 23. Henley wrote this poem from his bed after having his leg amputated below the knee- a life saving response to tuberculosis of the bone. [8] According to Robert Louis Stevenson's letters, the idea for the character of Long John Silver was inspired by Stevenson's real-life friend Henley. From the age of 12, Henley suffered from tuberculosis of the bone that resulted in the amputation of his left leg below the knee in 1868–69.Connell dates this as 1865, but Ernest Mehew William Ernest Henley, (1849–1903), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004–08, suggests 1868–69 while Henley was being treated in St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London According to Robert … The word invictus itself, is Latin for "unconquerable".This theme is carried on throughout the poem in stanza's, most obviously, "for my unconquerable soul." His other works include London Voluntaries (1893), Poems (1898), Hawthorn and Lavender (1899), and For England’s Sake (1900). Henley was born in Gloucester and educated at the Crypt Grammar School. 'Invictus': 'Invictus' was written by the English poet William Ernest Henley in 1875. Henley was a writer during the Victorian era who faced a good deal of challenges in his life. Henley was a great poet, critic as well as an editor and none of the success in his life came easy. He was one of the most influential critics of his time, talented poet and really courageous man. Henley did other notable work for various publishers: the, In 1892, Henley published a second volume of poetry, named after the first poem, "The Song of the Sword" but later re-titled. When William was sixteen years old, he had issues with his leg due to tuberculosis. [20][21] He is remembered most for his 1875 poem "Invictus", one of his "hospital poems" that were composed during his isolation as a consequence of early, life-threatening battles with tuberculosis; this set of works, one of several types and themes he engaged during his career, are said to have developed the artistic motif of the "poet as a patient" and to have anticipated modern poetry "not only in form, as experiments in free verse containing abrasive narrative shifts and internal monologue, but also in subject matter."[2]. And his children in the workhouse Literary Analysis Essay of William Ernest Henley ‘Invictus ... Invictus Analysis William Ernest Henley’s Invictus is a poem that conveys the idea of dealing with struggles head-on. [11]:129 Henley spent three years in hospital (1873–75), during which he was visited by the authors Leslie Stephen and Robert Louis Stevenson and wrote and published the poems collected as In Hospital. William Ernest Henley was born on August 23, 1849,in Gloucester, England. In 1867, Henley passed the Oxford Local Schools Examination. It took the pioneering skills of surgeon Joseph Lister of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh to avert the second amputation. [4], In 1889, Henley became editor of the Scots Observer, an Edinburgh journal of the arts and current events. Tuberculosis had affected him significantly that to save his life, the amputation of the other leg became necessary. Born on August 23, 1849, he is considered to have played an influential role in the literary circle of his time by introducing works of some of the 1890s great English writers in his journal. The Crypt School, Gloucester. William Ernest was the oldest of six children, five sons and a daughter; his father died in 1868. William Ernest Henley had the opportunity to publish his poems in the magazines his edited. He died at his residence in Woking, London. "[12] After hearing of Henley's death on 13 July 1903, the author Wilfrid Scawen Blunt recorded his physical and ideological repugnance to the late poet and editor in his diary, "He has the bodily horror of the dwarf, with the dwarf's huge bust and head and shrunken nether limbs, and he has also the dwarf malignity of tongue and defiant attitude towards the world at large. Deep in his nature lay an inner well of cheerfulness, and a spontaneous joy of living, that nothing could drain dry, though it dwindled sadly after the crowning affliction of his little daughter's death. The struggle, in this situation, is a reference to Henley’s bout of tuberculosis of the bone, which led to his leg being amputated. ‎William Ernest Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, the eldest of six children. August 23, [21], After his recovery, Henley began by earning his living as a journalist and publisher. T he title of this short yet powerful poem is “Invictus” which, in Latin, means “unconquered.” It was written by the English author William Ernest Henley (1849–1903) who in 1875, was recovering from the amputation of his leg due to sever tuberculosis. A fixture in London literary circles, the one-legged Henley was also the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson's character Long John Silver (Treasure Island, 1883), while his young daughter Margaret inspired J. M. Barrie's choice of the name Wendy for the heroine of his play Peter Pan (1904). cit., dates this as 1865, but Mehew, op. He wrote several poems, collected in “In Hospital.” During this period, he became friends with Robert Louis Stevenson, who based some part of the character Long John Silver, in his work Treasure Island on Henley. Henley contracted tuberculosis of the bone at age 12, causing the amputation of his left leg below the knee in 1869. About William Ernest Henley. [4], Throughout his life, the contrast between Henley's physical appearance and his mental and creative capacities struck acquaintances in completely opposite, but equally forceful ways. )", http://courses.wcupa.edu/fletcher/henley/bio.htm, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/jun/11/mcveigh.usa1, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2019/03/new-zealand-shooting-manifesto-poems-dylan-thomas/585079/, "Villon's Straight Tip To All Cross Coves (Canting Songs)", "Stick in the Wheel share video for new single Villon Song", Poetry Archive: 137 poems of William Ernest Henley, William Ernest Henley: Profile and Poems at Poets.org, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Ernest_Henley&oldid=999720077, People educated at The Crypt School, Gloucester, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2015, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. William Ernest Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, the eldest of six children. William Ernest was the oldest of six children, five sons and a daughter; his father died in 1868. In 1889 the Chicago Daily Tribune ran an article about the promise that Henley showed in the field of poetry. The Grave of William Ernest Henley and his daughter – Margaret Emma. He was sinking fast towards one, In part, the poem reads: Lack of work and lack of victuals, He was the first of six children by Mary Morgan and William Henley. [25] His widow, Anna, moved to 213 West Campbell-St, Glasgow, where she lived until her death.[26]. "[2], For a short period in 1877 and 1878, Henley was hired to edit The London Magazine, "which was a society paper",[22] and "a journal of a type more usual in Paris than London, written for the sake of its contributors rather than of the public. Born in England at a time of reformation, this well-educated man from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland was brimming with ideas which he poured into his writings. William Ernest Henley: William Ernest Henley suffered from tuberculosis as a child. Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be. 'The Great Replacement', Section IV, 'In Conclusion', P.70, by Brenton Tarrant, issued 15 March 2019. That he plunged for a solution; About the selection of so many of his works, Gleeson White, 1888, op cit., states: "In a society paper, "William Ernest Henley: A Biographical Sketch", "Ballades and Rondeaus, Chants Royal, Sestinas, Villanelles, &c.: Selected with Chapter on the Various Forms (William Sharp, Gen. Series Ed. Henley died when he was 52 years old in the year 1903 due to tuberculosis. Henley’s next editing position was with the Edinburgh journal, Scots Observer. "Invictus" was written by William Ernest Henley in 1875, while he underwent medical treatment for tuberculosis of the bone. "[28] Henley was known as a man of inner resolve and character that transferred into his works, but also made an impression on his peers and friends. William Ernest Henley was born on 23rd August 1849, in Gloucester, England. William Ernest Henley (23 August 1849 – 11 July 1903) was an English poet, critic and editor, best remembered for his 1875 poem "Invictus". This great work was published in 1888. He passed the Oxford Local Schools in 1867. His best-known poem, Invictus, was published in 1875 and was among his hospital poems. [11]:129 Henley contested the diagnosis that a second amputation was the only means to save his life, seeking treatment from the pioneering late 19th-century surgeon Joseph Lister at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, commencing in August 1873. After reading this poem over and over again you can tell the speaker is going through some sort of pain. [41][42] This historical event was captured in fictional form in the Clint Eastwood film Invictus (2009), wherein the poem is referenced several times. Nelson Mandela recited the poem "Invictus" to other prisoners incarcerated alongside him at Robben Island, some believe because it expressed in its message of self-mastery Mandela's own Victorian ethic. [2] As an editor of a series of literary magazines and journals, Henley was empowered to choose each issue's contributors, as well as to offer his own essays, criticism, and poetic works; like Johnson, he said to have "exerted a considerable influence on the literary culture of his time. "[2] Henley published many poems in different collections including In Hospital (written between 1873 and 1875) and A Book of Verses, published in 1891. Brown, Henley contracted a tubercular disease that later necessitated the amputation Son of a Gloucester bookseller and a pupil of the poet T.E. His poetry had even made its way to the United States, inspiring several different contributors from across the country to pen articles about him. His remains were cremated and the ashes buried in his daughter’s grave in the churchyard at Cockayne Hatley, Bedfordshire. [22] In his selection White included a considerable number of pieces from London, and only after he had completed the selection did he discover that the verses were all by one hand, that of Henley. The enigmatic man, William Ernest Henley was a prolific writer of the 1800s. The paper had almost as many writers as readers, as Henley said, and its fame was confined mainly to the literary class, but it was a lively and influential contributor to the literary life of its era. William Ernest Henley was an English poet, editor, and critic of England’s late Victorian era. "[9] Stevenson's stepson, Lloyd Osbourne, described Henley as "... a great, glowing, massive-shouldered fellow with a big red beard and a crutch; jovial, astoundingly clever, and with a laugh that rolled like music; he had an unimaginable fire and vitality; he swept one off one's feet. Recalling his old friend, Sidney Low commented, "... to me he was the startling image of Pan come to Earth and clothed—the great god Pan...with halting foot and flaming shaggy hair, and arms and shoulders huge and threatening, like those of some Faun or Satyr of the ancient woods, and the brow and eyes of the Olympians. [3]:35[6][7] The early years of Henley's life were punctuated by periods of extreme pain due to the draining of his tuberculosis abscesses. Discover the real story, facts, and details of William Ernest Henley. [2], Henley was a pupil at the Crypt School, Gloucester, between 1861 and 1867. 1888), in Edinburgh. Invictus by William Ernest Henley “Invictus” was written when Henley was in the hospital being treated for Tuberculosis of the bone, also known as Pott’s disease. Death of William Ernest Henley The writer died because of tuberculosis in Woking on July 11, 1903 at the age of 53. He anonymously contributed several poems to the paper. Moreover, I am quite out of sympathy with Henley's deification of brute strength and courage, things I wholly despise. Draft #2 "Invictus" is a poem filled with the interpretations and vision of the author. Just one the adversities Henley faced was being on the sharp end of the surgeon’s knife. In the following year, H. B. Donkin, in his volume Voluntaries For an East London Hospital (1887), included Henley's unrhymed rhythms recording the poet's memories of the old Edinburgh Infirmary. However, for the next eight years, his frequent stay in the hospital would affect his work. Invictus was a poem, succinctly written by William Henley, an English Poet, in 1875. William Ernest Henley was born on August 23, 1849, in Gloucester, England. Death of William Ernest Henley. He worked as an editor for the society paper, The London, from 1877 to 78. During 1892, Henley also published three plays written with Stevenson: Andrzej Diniejko, 2011, "William Ernest Henley: A Biographical Sketch," at, This page was last edited on 11 January 2021, at 16:34. [38] Henley's poem, "Pro Rege Nostro", became popular during the First World War as a piece of patriotic verse, containing the following refrain, What have I done for you, England, my England? Yet, Henley survived and thrived against adversity and remained ‘captain of his soul’. Originally the fourth part of a longer sequence published in Henley's collection In Hospital, this 16-line section has taken on a life of its own. Henley was born in Gloucester on 23 August 1849, to mother, Mary Morgan, a descendant of poet and critic Joseph Warton, and father, William, a bookseller and stationer. The headmaster of the school, Thomas Edward Brown, discovered the great potential in Henley, leading to a lifelong friendship between the two. His frail health frequently interrupted his education. Began a friendship with Stevenson published william ernest henley tuberculosis Kipling 's Barrack-Room Ballads ( 1890–92 ) a below knee amputation of feet. [ 11 ]:135 this also marked the beginning of a Gloucester bookseller and daughter. Tuberculosis as a journalist and publisher died when he was on the of... Latin for `` invincible '', and detailed poem, Section IV, 'In Conclusion ' P.70! His right leg until he became a patient of the bone became a patient of night. 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